For many of us, retirement can often seem like something too far off in the future. However, as we approach retirement age, and as we are exposed with news of economic instability, we often wonder what is in store for us during retirement. Because of this, a question we often ask ourselves is: Where is the best place to invest to get the most for our retirement?
Although there are other choices available, the most popular are the traditional 401(k) and the Roth IRA.
The traditional 401(k) is one of the oldest retirement plans available, which was introduced by the American Congress in the year 1978. Here, the employee is expected to give a contribution—from earnings that are pre-taxed (gross income)— that goes into their retirement plan, sometimes called deferred funds. These funds are then separately deposited by the employer into a different or special savings account which can be allocated in a variety of investment options up until the time employees are qualified to receive or collect their retirement money.
On the other hand, the Roth IRA, which was brought to formality only recently in 1998, is a retirement plan classification wherein an individual can set aside post-tax (net) income up to a specified or limited amount per year.
What Are The Main Differences?
For the Roth IRA, single individuals earning at least $110,000 may currently contribute up to $5,000 each year, and $6,000 for ages 50 and older. While married couples who are filing jointly and are currently earning up to $183,000 may contribute up to $5,000, or $6,000 for ages 50 and older. Keep in mind Roth IRA are individual retirement accounts. So, even though a couple is married they will have separate Roth IRA’s.
For traditional 401(k) plans, contributors under 50 can contribute up to $17,000 each year, while a contribution of up to $22,000 can be made for those above 50 years old. The difference between the contribution amounts between the two requirement accounts is rather large.
When someone contributes to their Roth IRA they are 100 percent vested. In other words, the person owns 100 percent of the money within the account. 401(k) vesting requirements are vastly different from the Roth IRA. Contributions to a 401(k) plan consist of employee deferrals and, if applicable, employer matching contributions. Like the Roth IRA, any contributions made by the individual (also known as deferred contributions) and the earnings on those contributions are always 100 percent vested. But, the employer matching contributions and the earnings on the employer contributions must vest under a schedule. The 401(k) vesting schedule must be at least as generous as the two- to six-year graduated or three-year cliff schedules.
The Roth IRA provides better control and management to your account compared to the traditional 401(k). Although both have a wide range of investment options, the Roth IRA allows you to choose the investment house you want to utilize; for the traditional 401(k), you will be locked in to your company’s management options. For the traditional 401(k), the default choice could oftentimes mean a poor choice. However, if the management option in your company is relatively good, then this shouldn’t be a problem. One other thing to note is that most 401(k) plans currently do not have ETFs as an investment option. There are some benefits to using ETFs over mutual funds.
Taxes remain one of the biggest differences between the traditional 401k and the Roth IRA. In a traditional 401(k), contributions lower your federal income taxes. For example, if you were to earn $50,000 per year and contributed $2,000, you only have to pay income tax for $48,000. Once you reach the age of 59 ½, you may opt to withdraw your funds however you will be asked to pay taxes on any money that is withdrawn. Also, since the government wants you to pay income tax at some point, you are required to take minimum distributions from your 401(k) starting at age 70½.
For the Roth IRA, for the same $2,000 contribution, you pay the taxes upfront, instead of when you withdrawal funds. Remember, contributions to a Roth IRA are made with net income (post tax). However, since you pay taxes up front the government does not require any minimum distributions.
Another thing to keep in mind is that although the 401(k) employee contributions are not subject to income tax until they are distributed, employee and employer contributions are immediately subject to payroll taxes.
Which One To Choose?
There are advantages and disadvantages when it comes to choosing between a Roth IRA and traditional 401(k). For example, it makes sense to choose the traditional 401(k) when your employer offers a matching contribution because a 401(k) match is a 100 percent return on investment. Always take advantage of FREE MONEY! Seriously, what other investment do you know that guarantees a 100 percent return?
Even if you don’t know what to invest in, most 401(k)s offer a cash account. Invest your funds into the cash account to take advantage of your employer matching contributions until you figure out your investment objectives. But, should you feel that taxes will be higher when it’s time to withdraw your funds, then a Roth IRA may make more sense.
Remember, there are plenty of reputable companies that can help you with your 401k retirement planning and related services.
Despite what any financial guru says, choosing between the two plans remains highly situational (unless you get a 401k match), so be sure to take into account your particular circumstances and only factual information when weighing your choice. After all, it is ultimately your money and your retirement that’s on the line.
YFS is owner and author of Your Finances Simplified. He was born and raised in west Philadelphia and is now a financial adviser, IT contractor, landlord, and treasurer of a non-profit. He created his blog partly due to his desire to help people with their finances.
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